Skills and Education

This page contains information about skills and education in Illinois, and is divided into the following categories:

Skills Gap


How are skills defined?

Skill is most commonly measured through education.1“The Low Skilled Labor Market” Department of Labor The term “low skill” tends to apply to those with less than a high school education, “middle skill” to those who have more than a high school education and less than a college degree, and “high skill” for those with a college degree and more. Skill, however, is not only reflected by education–there are physical skills, soft skills, and emotional skills which contribute to meaningful employment.

The National Skills Coalition highlights the particular need for middle skills in their factsheet Illinois’ Forgotten Middle, one of their many state snapshots. Middle-skill jobs are those that require more than a High School education, but less than a four-year college degree.

Middle-skill jobs make up 53% of the Illinois labor market, but only 42% of the state’s workers are trained for middle-skill jobs.2National Skills Coalition: Illinois’ Forgotten Middle

The interactive, multi-media article Where the jobs are: The new blue collar by USA Today describes where some of those middle-skill jobs are, and the skills and training needed to fill them.

Educational Attainment


Illinois

Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE):

The Illinois Report Card site (the board’s interactive data clearinghouse) is an engaging, dynamic resource with information on student demographics, performance, school funding and much more. All visuals come with a helpful explanation of the data, along with context, and additional resources for research.  Among the vast amount of information are data about:

12-13 IL dropout by grade_race_genderISBE also maintains a Report Card page and Research page, containing numerous sources of information about graduation rates and performance in Illinois public schools. Following are select resources from the site:

  • The 2014 Illinois State Report Card is an overview of state performance and graduation rates.
  • The 2013 Annual Report contains detailed figures on Students and Student Performance. Dropout rates by grade, gender, and race (displayed in the image to the right) are available from the “Students” profile.3See the Annual Report page for more.
  • The 2012 Annual Statistical Report is a 290 page document which details finances and county and district level enrollment information. It is not a source for performance data beyond dropouts and attendance.4ISBE also maintains records of historical statistical reports from 2004 to the present.

Working Poor Families Project:

The Working Poor Families Project collects data on educational attainment in all 50 states. Their full yearly data release contains indicators related to education, income, employment, and other topics as well. Here are some highlights from their data on Education and Skills Status of Adults.5These figures come from the 2015 Working Poor Families Project, based on 2013 Census data unless otherwise noted. See more about this information on our Poverty page.   

In Illinois, Hispanics finish high school at dramatically lower rates than other races. Of adults age 25-54, 34% of Hispanics do not have a high school diploma or equivalent:6Working Poor Families Project, 2015, Chapter 2, Tables 2.A.7a through 2.A.7e.

In Illinois, nearly 3 million adults have only a High School degree or less:7Working Poor Families Project, 2015, Chapter 2, Tables 2.A.1a and 2.A.2a.

An additional 1,999,375 have some post-secondary education but no degree:8Working Poor Families Project, 2015, Chapter 2, Tables 2.A.1a, 2.A.2a, and 2.A.3a.

In 52.7% of working poor families in Illinois, no parent has a post-secondary education.9Working Poor Families Project, 2015, Chapter 1, Table 1.A.7b

Chicago Community Areas

Chicago Community Indicators

Credit: Social IMPACT Research

The City of Chicago’s Data Portal lists percent of adults 25 and above without a High School Diploma by neighborhood. This table provides multiple pieces of information about Chicago neighborhoods–scroll to the right for education information.

The Social IMPACT Research Center provides more detailed education data for adults 25 and older by Chicago neighborhood in its Chicago Community Area Indicators report.10Pages 11 and 12 A few highlights from the data:

In South Lawndale (a majority Latino community), 50.7% of adults 25 and older have less than a high school diploma or equivalent.
In Gage Park (also majority Latino), 46.6% of adults 25 and over have less than a high school diploma or equivalent.

In Chicago on average, 17.8% of adults 25 and over have less than a high school diploma or equivalent.

National Data

The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) provides detailed data about national student demographics and performance, such as Rates of high school completion and bachelor’s degree attainment among persons age 25 and over by race/ethnicity and sex,11See the 2013 Digest of Education Statistics for more. or Labor Force Participation and Unemployment Rates by Educational Attainment.12See their Condition of Education portal for more.

Literacy and English Proficiency


For many in Illinois and the United States more broadly, low English language skills remain a barrier to employment. Here are a few figures, as well as further sources of data on literacy, indicators of literacy, and English proficiency.

In Illinois, 32.3% of working poor families have at least one parent that has trouble with English.13Working Poor Families data Chapter 1, Table 1.A.8b. Read more about the Working Poor Families data on our Poverty page.

To the extent that school performance in reading is an indicator of literacy, assessments of reading skills are informative. The Illinois Report Card contains reading proficiency statistics for Illinois students. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has data on reading proficiency nationally.

Compared to other states, English Language Learners in Illinois fall behind their Native English Speaker counterparts by much wider margins.14See Table: Average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scale scores of 4th- and 8th-graders in public schools and percentage scoring at or above selected reading achievement levels, by English language learner (ELL) status and state: 2013.

NCES also reports national literacy data, including measures of quantitative literacy.15Unfortunately, literacy is not a well-measured variable, and another in-depth analysis of this type has not be completed since 2003.

44% of Hispanic American adults and 24% of Black American adults have below basic literacy skills, compared to 7% of White American adults.16Specifically measured “prose literacy” using continuous text prose samples. Source: 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). See full data table for more.

Other information from NCES includes Home Literacy Activities statistics (examples of home literacy activities include reading to children or bringing them to a library), and the report Literacy, Numeracy, and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments Among U.S. Adults.17See report page for more.

Resources


In November, 2014 Literacy Works, a Chicago organization dedicated to improving adult literacy, created the handbook Transitions to Education and Training. This resource is designed to help workforce professionals guide lower skilled adults to free and affordable education and training. Along with other helpful material, the handbook includes:

  • Suggestions for communicating with clients to effectively encourage further education.
  • Various program options for continuing education.
  • Strategies for identifying quality programs and avoiding scams.

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